Pakistan is having largest minerals and gemstones reserves in the world which is said to be the 2nd largest after Brazil. Pakistan popular areas are Baluchistan Province, in north sides there are Skardu, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hunza, and Swat Valleys which have following types of gemstones and minerals. The environment of the region is very perfect and suitable for formation of gemstones and minerals.
- Precious and base metals
- Precious and semi-precious gemstones,
- Industrial minerals
- Placer deposits for recovery of gold & other precious metals form the alluvial deposits.
The beauty of Hunza, Gilgit, and Skardu captures one’s mind immediately. One cannot help staying and enjoying there for long time if ever visit these areas. Nature has blessed this region with not only stunning beauty of mountains, greenery, flowers, fruits, innocent people but also with many precious and semi-precious minerals and gemstones The quality of these stones is recognized at international level. The gemstones, rocks, crystals found in this area are very nice, clear, having good colour and variety. The popular gemstones and minerals are here with it.
The region is divided into different way geologically:-
- Presence of Various types of sedimentary, igneous, volcanic and different grades of metamorphosed rocks.
- All these rocks range in age from pre-Cambrian to recent.
- Occurrence of 2 major tectonic thrusts.
- Typical rocks of the mélange zone.
- Rocks of the Island arc sequence.
- Variety of alteration zones.
The division of gemstones in region wise:-
Here are some natural gemstones and minerals mining areas .
Northwest Frontier Province
Swat (Malakanddivision) – various types of quartz, Emerald, and epidote
Dir (Malakanddivision) – quartz and Corundum
Mansehra (Hazaradivision) – smoky quartz and Corundum
Peshawar district (Frontier province) –, xenotime, and bastnaesite, Quartz with astrophyllite/reibeckite fiber inclusions
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Mohmand Agency– Emerald, sphene, epidote, clinozoisite, and
Bajaur Agency– Emerald, and orange-colour scapolite, garnet
Khyber Agency– xenotime, bastnaesite, Quartz with astrophyllite/reibeckite fibers inclusions
North and South Waziristan Agencies – diamond quartz, phantom quartz, Faden quartz, chlorite-included quartz, window quartz
- Chilas (Diamer-district) – Alluvial diopside, aquamarine, quartz, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and
- Gilgi , Hunza, and Shigar (Gilgit-district) – Aquamarine, ruby, topaz , rutile quartz, emerald (new find), apatite, pollucite, pargasite, morganite, spinel,
- Shengus, Stak Nala, and Tormiq Nala (Baltistan Skardu Road Baltistan district) – Aquamarine, apatite, sphene, morganite, topaz, quartz, tourmaline, and
- Shigar Proper (near Skardu, Baltistan district) – Apatite, zoisite, epidote, rutile quartz, and morganite
- Childee, Kashmal, and Yuno (Shigar area, near Skardu, Baltistan district) – Aquamarine, tourmaline, apatite, emerald-colour, morganite, quartz, topaz,
- Hyderabad, Testun, Dassu, Goyungo, Net Tahirabad (Shigar area, Baltistan district) – Topaz (best golden colour here), aquamarine, morganite, tourmaline, apatite, rare earth minerals, quartz, and new find emerald
- Appu Aligund, Fuljo, Braldu, Bashu, and Karma (Baltistan district) – Tourmaline, ruby, aquamarine, pargasite, amethyst, garnets,diopside, emerald, topaz, scheelite, and quartz
- Khappalu and near Siachin area (Gaanshai area, Baltistan district) – Aquamarine, amethyst, and fine golden rutile quartz
Kharan district – Brookite, quartz, anatase
Chaman (near Quetta) – Diamond quartz, quartz on prehnite-base, Patrolium Quartz, window quartz, and faden quartz included by chlorite
These areas are still under development and need government’s’ attention, foreign or local investors’ attention. The miners risk their life by climbing on the peaks and many even loss their lives. Ill-equipped and oblivious of the mining techniques, these people used explosives to initiate diggings and blasting and distributing the costs that may incur during the mining period.
The world highest peaks exist in this region such as famous world 2nd largest K-2, Killer Mountain Nanga Parbat. Three different mountains ranges meet togather in this region i.e. Hindukush, Qaraqarm, Himalayans.
The earth changes in this region happened around 50-million years ago. In the geological changes, these huge mountain ranges appeared. The reason of gemstones in this region is also due to this and these regions rich in precious / semi-precious gemstones, rocks, minerals. The movement of tectonic plates caused huge pressure (1000s tons) which formed rocks, minerals and gems and converted them in gemstones, minerals or rare compounds.
Giglit Baltistan Government