What is Beryl?

What is Beryl?

Beryl is known mineral variety in gemstones. Beryl is a family name. This is formed of beryllium cyclosilicate with having formula Be₃Al₂(SiO₃)₆.   The popular varieties of Beryl are emerald and aquamarine.

Chemical Composition: – Be-Al-Silicate

Crystals Structure: –         Rectangular etch pits

Crystal system:-  Hexagonal crystal system

Hardness (Mohs hardness scale):  7.5 – 8

Colors :- Green , Blue , Pink , Yellow , White , Rarely Red

S.G :-  2.75 Approx

R.I :-  1.56-1.60

DR :-  0.003-0.009

Luster :-  Vitreous

Transparency :-  Transparent to Translucent

Gem Species :-  Beryl

Cleavage :- 3,1 – basal

Fracture :-  Uneven to conchoidal

Tenacity:- Brittle

Striking Features:-  Crystal form and hardness

Environment:-  Beryl is most well-known from granite pegmatites. It can also be found in metamorphosed mica schists and in igneous rhyolite deposits.

Rock Type: –  Igneous, Metamorphic

About Of Beryl

Beryl is generally colorless. Different impurities of traces cause colour diversification in the stone. Which produces different varieties of Beryl such as green emerald, blue aquamarine, pink morganite, yellow helidor, redy beryl and many others. Here is given detail of some beryl variety with names.

Beryl Varieties: – The Gems Varieties Are written by Following,

1.Rich Green = Emerald-(Chromium/vanadium)  Emerald is the famous variety of beryl. Emerald is known as precious gemstone. This is green variety of Beryl.

Courtesy : The Arkenstone, iRocks.com

2.Light Blue = Aquamarine –Fe (Iron)  Aquamarine, is the blue variety of beryl. It has aqua like blue colour. The aquamarine gemstones are beautiful and used in jewelry.

Courtesy: The Arkenstone, iRocks.com

3.Pink = Morgonite Mn (Magniece)  Morganite is named after the banker J.P. Morgan. This is pink variety of Beryl
4.Yellow = Heliodor  Heliodor include light green, yellow, greenish yellow varieties of beryl.

Courtesy The Arkenstone, iRocks.com

5.Colorless White = Goshenite  Goshenite is  commonly  colorless beryl. Its colour goes from white to colourless.
6.Light Green = Green Beryl – Fe(Iron)  Green Beryl has light green colour which can be turned into blue Aquamarine after heating.
7. Red = Red Beryl – Magniece  Red Beryl, is also called as  Bixbite. This is rare variety of beryl. It has deep red colour and only  variety found in 2 localities Utah.
8. Dark Blue = Maxixe

Common Mineral Association

Quartz, Muscovite, Albite, Orthoclase, Calcite, Pyrite, Spodumene, Tourmaline, Apatite

Distinguish Mineral Assosiation  

Apatite – Significantly softer (5).

Quartz – Softer (7), usually terminated, and crystals striated horizontally (whereas Beryl striated vertically).

Feldspars – Softer (6), have good cleavage.

Topaz – Different crystal forms. (Though difficult to distinguish in massive form).

Tourmaline – Different crystals forms, crystals heavily striated.

Noteworthy Localities

  1. Afghanistan has morgantie, emeralds, aquamarine in the Provinces of Laghman, Konar, Nuristan, and Nangarhar (especially Darra-i-Pech).
  2. Brazil produce finest quality of morgantie, aquamarine.
  3. USA
  4. Russia
  5. Ukraine
  6. Pakistan
  7. Burma
  8. Namibia
  9. Ethopia
  10. Zambia
  11. Columbia
  12. Madagascar
  13. Nigeria
  14. Eygpt
  15. Austria

Author:  Rozina  Gulzar


What is Luster Called in Gemstones?

Luster is referred to the light reflected from the surface of gems. In some gemstones, there is internal light reflections also such as facet stones with transparency. However internal reflection of light is not called luster. It is called brilliance. Luster is the way a mineral either shines or does not shine. Gems and minerals can have metallic and non metallic luster.

Various terminology are used for defining luster for a gemstones. Such as Adamant, Vitreous, Silky, Greasy etc. Normally luster can be defined in two categories:-

  1. Metallic (such as pyrite , hematite)
  2. Non Metallic (all gemstones)

One will get in gemstones most non metallic gemstones. Following are described brief description of each luster type:;-

  1. Adamantine
  2. Sub Adamantine
  3. Vitreous 
  4. Sub Vitreous 
  5. Greasy
  6. Silky
  7. Pearly
  8. Resinous
  9. Waxy
  10. Dull
Non-Metallic Luster Appearance
Adamantine Sparkly
Earthy Dull, clay-like
Pearly Pearl-like
Resinous Like resins, such as tree sap
Silky Soft-looking with long fibers
Vitreous Glassy


Adamantine is highest form of luster just like mirror. Its best example is Diamond.


Some gemstones has luster like diamond but they are not fully adamantine. However they are closed to adamatine. They somes in sub-adamantine category. Their examples are Cubic Zircon.


Some gemstones have glassy like shining on surface such as tourmaline, Quartz, topaz.  The majority of gems show a vitreous luster. Examples are beryl, quartz, topaz, ruby, emerald and others with refractive indices between 1.50 and 1.70.


In sub vitreous, the gemstones are included which have low reflection of light on surface such as flourite.


Gems with greasy surface will have oil like or fat like. The example is serpentine. Another example is garnet or peridot. These luster are characteristic of those polished surfaces that are not perfectly flat but that approach flatness.


The gemstones with silky luster will be based on having some fibrous material such as Gypsum and Malachite. Another example is Ulexite or moonstone. They look like having texture of fabric. Polished tiger’s eye shows a vitreous luster on its surface, overlaying a fibrous body.


Some gemstones have orient luster which is called Pearly. They show an iridescent play of colors on their surfaces.


Amber are consisted of preserved prehistoric plant resign. This gemstone have resinous luster example in best. Sphalerite has also resinous luster. The gem materials that are soft and have low refractive indices, like Amber and Opal.



Some gemstones looks like having kind of a wax on surface. Best example is turquoise and Opals


As this is shown by name that gemstone with having dull luster will be reflect very very low light. Dull will have fine grain like surface.


Some gemstones or minerals have metallic matters in them. Such as Pyrite and Hematite. Though

they are not used as gemstones in general however in some cases, they are.

What is Aquamarine?

What is Aquamarine?

The name “aquamarine” is derived from two Latin words: aqua, meaning “water,” and marina, meaning “of the sea.”

Aquamarine is variety of a beryl. Its colour is blue to greenish blue or pale blue. It comes in shape of rough and crystal both. Crystals can be big in sizes. The elements in Aquamarine are Beryllium, Aluminum, Silicate. Beryl can be in many varieties of colours. Blue variety is called Aquamarine. The hardness of Aquamarine is 7.5 to 8. Crystals of aquamarine can be larger sizes.

Green aquamarine can be heated at very high temperature in order to get blue colour.

Largest Ever Aquamarine Crystal Mined?

This aquamarine is found as the largest aquamarine crystal. Location is confused between Skardu Pakistan or Afghanistan. However, claim of its location other than Pakistan or Afghanistan is false. It is almost two feet and weight is 60 pound.

Largest Ever Aquamarine Cut?

The gem was designed and cut by gem artist Bernd Munsteiner. It stands 14 inches tall and weighs 10,363 carats — or nearly 5 pounds.


It’s difficult to place a value on the gem, though it was offered to the Smithsonian in the late 1990s for $7 million to $10 million, Forex published

What are Aquamarine Properties?

Chemical Formula Be3Al2Si6O18
Colour Blue, Green Blue, Pale Blue, Deep Sky Blue
Light blue, Fe2+ in the channels of the structure. Darker blue, Fe2+-O-Fe3+ intervalence charge transfer.
Hardness 7.5 to 8
Refractive Index 1.577-1.583  (+0.017, – 0.017)
Streak Colorless
Crystal System Hexagonal
Habit Prismatic
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage 3,1 – basal
Transparency Transparent to translucent
Fracture Uneven to conchoidal
Tenacity Brittle
Group Silicates; Cyclosilicates
Rock Type Igneous

How Aquamarine Get its Colour?

Aquamarine is variety of beryl. The presence of Iron turns the Beryl Blue / Green blue making it Aquamarine.

Locations of Aquamarine in the World

Aquamarine is found mostly in following location of the world.

  •  Brazil
  • Angla, Kenya
  • central Madagascar,
  • Malawi,
  • Nigeria,
  • Mozambique,
  • Pakistan,
  • the Ural Mountains in Russia,
  • Tanzania,
  • Colorado
  • USA
  • Zambia
  • Vietnam

What is history of Aquamarine?

Historically, evidence locates first use of aquamarine by Romans and Greek around the time period 480 to 300 BC. Since 7th century, it had been getting popularity. Usually, ancient sailors used to wear it or keep it with them. They used to believe that it kept them strong, fearless and protected them from forthcoming problems, disasters or wrath of oceans.

The Romans in their period used to believe on aquamarine and fix it in jewelry. They had belief that carving different figures on aquamarine will help them in saving from enemies. They used to give it gift to the bridegrooms, sailors and on many other occasions. During the Medieval era of the Middle Ages, the people believe on love feelings awakening by this gemstone. It was said that it increases young age and intelligence. It gives courage and happiness.

In documents, aquamarine discovery first took place in 1723 in the Adun-Chalon Mountains in Siberia. Though deposits were abundant and later it quickly turned into major mining site. The peak production happened in 1796. It produced almost 70 Killo gram gem quality aquamarine during that year.

What are Geological and Geographic Occurrences of Aquamarine?

What are geological or geographical occurrences of aquamarine? In order to understand aquamarine, one must be aware of beryl that how it is formed and appear. Beryl is usually found in granitic pegmatites. Pegmatites are large structures comprising of interlocking minerals and rocks.

A natural geological process causes the appearance of deposits towards the surface area. From these pegmatites, one can locate the presence of deposits. The presence of iron in beryl will turn beryl to aquamarine during crystallization process. In case of little or other impurities present during the process, gem will appear in other forms such as emerald, Morganite.

How Gemstones Get Their Specific Colours?

Gemstones give very beautiful colour variety which attracts to the eyes of buyers. If people like the particular gemstones, it is because of their colour. Specific colour is known as gem colour. So, how the gemstones get their specific colour and how they turn into that particular colour? Here are some points discussed under below:-

What Causes Gemstone Color?

There are number of gemstones with great variety of colours. Each has its own colour characteristics. The causes of colours in the gemstones are basically from chemical composition of the gemstones. This should be kept in mind that many minerals have coloureless form in their pure form. Inclusion of impurities in their structure leads to their colours.

The transitional metal group have such kind of elements copper, chromium, iron, gold, nickel and so on. Then, there are some rare earth series having elements such as gadolinium, erbium and yttrium. The spectra not adsorbed by the gems is transmitted or reflected back to the viewer. We see the wave lengths of light and process them as colour. The net result of the wavelengths that pass through the gem, gives the final color to the gemstone. In order to see color, we need at least 3 variables:

  • Light
  • A substance
  • Vision (the eye)

White is consisted on spectral colours which can be seen in rainbow normally. The colours of rainbow are red, yellow, orange, gree, indigo, blue and ciolet. Every colour among these rainbow colours travel at particular wavelength. For example, for red colour, it is 700mm and for violet colour, it is 400 mm. Each carries particular amount of energy.

When a substance catches all the spectral “rainbow” colours except red, the residual colour is red. So the result will be in red colour. Similarly, if substance absorbs all except red and blue, the residual colour ( net result) is purple colour. There are approximately 16 million of combination that can produce colour.  Light energy to heat is transformed by the result of absorption of light. White colour does not absorb light. It is good in use to keep heat away.

It is not necessary to have presence of transitional metal for the origin of the colour in gems. There is other factor of absorption of wavelengths of visible light, the transfer of electrons between ions in gemstone structure.  The absence of an ion in a specific location in the structure, or the presence of a foreign non-transition metal ion, can also lead to colouration, as can simple diffraction of light through the crystal’s structure.

Gems with having impurities which causes colour are called allochromatic. In case of having purity, they will be colourless. There is another condition for causing a colour which is called idiohromatic in which gemstones have such elements which are necessary for chemical structure. There are two type of coloring agents as a chemical structure or impurities.

  • Idiochromatic – minerals get colours by an element included in their chemical composition or chemical formula such as Malachite.
  • Allochromatic – Colours happens due to impurities and not part of their chemical compositions such as Emerald green emerald, pink morganite, and blue to blue-green aquamarine

Some elements’s Role in colour variety:-

Titanium Blue
Vanadium Green / Color change
Chromium Red – Green
Manganese Pink
Iron Red – Green – Yellow
Cobalt Blue
Nickel Green
Copper Green – Blue

List of Gemstones with colour reasons


Aquamarine is variety of beryl. The iron in the gem caused pale colour.

Emerald green color due to the presence of both iron and titanium.

Garnet deep colour is from iron.

Peridot is usually found in volcanos. This is form of Olivine.  The yellow-green color comes from iron.

Ruby if form of Corundum. The colour is normally due to Chromium. The colour of ruby is pink to red normally

Turquoise, the opaque mineral, gets its colour from Copper

Sapphire is variety of Corundum . In fact corundum in any colour except red is called sapphire. Here is Purple sapphire is from Kashmir, Pakistan. The blue is from Madagascar. The colour in sapphire is from  iron and titanium.


Lapidary / Types of Gemstone Cutting

Lapidary is a kind of shaping, working, and cutting of stones. The word is related and referred to small gemstones. Lapidary or gem cutting have been used 1000s years old. It is the way to transform rough gems / crystals into splendid gemstones. It unlocks the luster and shining of the stone.

There are following types of gem cutting styles:-

  1. Faceting
  2. Cabbing
  3. Tumbling
  4. Carving

We are giving brief details of gemstones types of cutting here:-


Faceting style of cutting in gemstones is an outstanding way of giving brilliance to the gemstones. If anyone want any wedding jewelry set made of gemstones like emerald, ruby or Diamond. One would like to go with faceted gemstones. It increases the value of gemstones. It gives beautify to the viewers. In faceting cutting style, gems are shaped in geometrical shapes and flat polished faces. The faceted style of cutting is very popular among people.

The brilliant cut round is an easy way to understand and start to learn faceting.

Gemstone faceting is great art or engineering in fact. In the start, one may feel faceting is difficult but it is not so ambiguous actually. There are different types of facet style gemstones.


Tumbling is a very simple form of gemstone cutting. Rough gemstones are put in a tumbler which is based on revolving barrel with abrasives. Progressively finer abrasive are used till polishing of the gem. One have noticed on the beaches and rivers coming from mountain about rocks. Which are in usually nice shapes and forms. They are naturally tumbled by friction of water and rocks.


Cabochon cutting is very popular among people. Cabbing is very popular for of cutting among people. It is an easy and anyone can master on it.

A cab can be of any form and from any stone precious, semi precious, rocks like ceramic, porcelain or wood.  It does not matter where it come from. Its shapes are flat, domed, or rounded inside. The stone cutter first select the stone for cabbing. Mark it with particular shape or template on the stone. One can select the beautiful patterns for exact finishing shape.

After marking, the shape is cut using trim saw and cooling lubricant to keep the saw blade from becoming too hot. Some machines which are used during cabbing process.

After cutting, they are well grinded with basic outlines. Then comes shapes making and finalizing with polishing work.


The more artistic, challenging part in lapidary is carving. It needs really very aesthetic and artistic sense to carve a stone. It needs further expertise along with cutting. In the past, the old civilizations started to carve a gem. The art is called glyptgraphy. Many thousand years before, gemstones have been carved for the members of past Roman nobility. This art can be found in many other civilizations such as Persian, Assyrians and Egyptians.

There are several types of carving. One of the best known forms is cameo. If the design is cut into the top of a cab, it’s called an intaglio or relief carving. If the design is carved on the back, it’s a reverse intaglio.



What is Tourmaline?

Tourmaline gemstone is form of crystal called “ Boron Silicate” or “ Crystalline Boron Silicate mineral” It is composition of various elements such as aluminum, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline has variety of colours and leveled as semi-precious gemstone. Usually Tourmaline hardly matches colour to other tourmaline. They are all time different from each others in colour variety. Tourmaline is also called “ Magic stone” and people had been wearing it to protest themselves.


Tourmaline is the name of a large group of boron silicate, it shares a common crystal structure and same physical and chemical properties .But extremely in chemical structure. The extensive range of arrangements along with hint basics and color middles causes tourmaline to occur in more colors and color combinations than any other mineral group.

People like tourmaline a lot and one can see tourmaline in jewelry stores also very easily. Some tourmaline crystals are obtained by mineral collectors and they keep in their collections because of their unique colours and crystal properties. Tourmaline Crystal specimens which has aesthetic shapes, attractive colours and mineral habit can be sold in many thousand dollars even.


Normally Tourmaline is occurred in an accessory mineral in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Their size of the crystals is usually in millimeter size dispersed through granite, pegmatite and gneiss.  By this way, they hardly and rarely take form of small amount of rock’s volume.

Tourmaline contains interesting properties. Tourmaline colours look different from different angles if viewed in different sides. This is because of Plechroism. When one sees in their vertical axis, they look darker in colour than if seen through their horizontal axis such as green and blue. Some tourmaline appears to have cat’s eye effect.

Tourmaline is both pyroelectic and piezoelectric. Once, it is put under pressure or temperature change, it will give an electrical charge. During this, dust particles become attached to the crystal ends.


Tourmaline are mostly found in world including

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Pakistan
  3. Zimbabwe,
  4. Tanzania,
  5. Usa,Siberia,
  6. Kenya,
  7. Nigeria,
  8. Mozambique,
  9. Brazil,
  10. Africa,
  11. Madagascar,
  12. Siberia,
  13. Australia
  14. and many more.


Tourmaline is found in different kinds such as:

  1. Indicolite tourmaline
  2. Black tourmaline
  3. Pink tourmaline
  4. Rubillite tourmaline
  5. Green tourmaline
  6. watermelon tourmaline
  7. Dravite
  8. Tourmalated quartz
  9. Bicolour
  10. Praiba Tourmaline

Physical Properties of tourmaline:

Physical properties of tourmaline
Chemical Classification Boron silicate
Color black. Blue, green, yellow, pink, red, orange, purple, brown .
Streak White when softer than the streak plate. Colorless when harder than the streak dish.
Luster Glassy
Diaphaneity Translucent to luminous to nearly milky
Cleavage Unclear
Hardness 6 to 7.4
Specific Gravity 2.7 to 3.4
Diagnostic Properties Absence of noticeable cleavage, prismatic crystals with curved triangular cross sections that are often striated, vibrant colors
Organic Arrangement (Ca,Na,K,[]) (Li,Mg,Fe+2,Fe+3,Mn+2,Al,Cr+3,V+3)3(Mg,Al,Fe+3,V+3,Cr+3)6 ((Si,Al,B)6O18) (BO3)3(OH,O)3 (OH,F,O)
Mineral Structure Hexagonal
Uses A popular gemstone and mineral specimen




What is Emerald?

Emerald is widely known as precious gemstone having distinctive green colour. It is one of the mineral Beryl variety OF Beryl family (Be3Al2(SiO3)6). The green colour is due to the presence of chromium and Vandaium. At Mohun Scale, the hardness of beryl is 7.5-8. The quantity of emerald around the world is traced in a small amount. They are found in ingenous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

Chemical Formula Be3Al2Si6O18
Colour Green
Hardness 7.5-8
Refractive Index 1.57 – 1.58
SG 2.6 – 2.8
Crystal System Hexagonal ,  Often as prismatic crystals.
Clarity Almost every natural emerald has eye-visible characteristics that can be inclusions, surface-reaching fractures, or healed fractures.
Luster Vitreous
Cleavage 3,1 – basal
Durability Emerald is very hard, but almost all specimens have inclusions and surface-reaching fractures that compromise their durability.
Fracture Uneven to conchoidal
Tenacity Brittle
In Group Silicates; Cyclosilicates
Rock Type Igneous, Metamorphic

St. Hildegard of Bingen, the noted lithologist, declared,

“All the green of nature is concentrated within the Emerald.”

History of Emerald

Emerald has been used in ancient Egypt and Mediterranean regions. Emerald or green beryl was used to be mined only in Egypt or Egypt was the only source of mining in that era i.e Wadi Sikait and also 15 kilometers from the Valley. Emerald mining was started first in 4th through mid- 1st centuries BC.

Emerald traces are also observed in Austria during the Roman Period though there is no any decisive evidence about it. In ancient Egypt, the usage of stones in different forms was popular and is quite evident from archaeological and geographical researches. They used to build buildings, pyramids, used to create ornamental stones for statues, vessels and precious stones for jewelry. 100 years ago, emerald mines were rediscovered in Upper Egypt which was named as Cleopatra’s mines for her love of the stone.


Many civilizations and cultures used to be fascinated by the beauty of emerald over 6000 years ago? In early 4000 BC, it was marketed in Babylon. Ancient Egypt used to take emerald as symbol of eternal life.

What are Geological and Geographic Occurrences of Emerald?

Emerald is variety of green Beryl. Beryl is a Beryllium Alumino – Silicate Mineral occasionally with some sodium, lithium, and cesium which is a rare mineral on earth. Its chemical formula is Be3Al2(SiO3)6. Beryllium is an element which occurs in very small amounts in the crust of earth.  Normally Beryl is colorless. The inclusion or presence of trace impurities gives colour to gemstones which is a variety of beryl. For example, green emerald, blue aquamarine, goshenite, pink Morganite, yellow to yellowish heliodor. Its hardness at Mohs is 7.5 – 8.

Beryl has variety of colours such as green to green emerald colour, blue to green blue like found in Aquamarine, yellow, pink in Morganite, purple, red, orange, brown, white like in goshenite, yellow to yellow heliodor, colourless, white, gray.

How Emerald Green Colour Formed?

Emerald is variety of Beryl which is colorless in ordinary form. Colorless beryl is called goshenite. Some trace amount of chromium or vanadium cause to grow a green color.




“Anthill Garnets” The gems mined by tiny Ants

Ant mined Anthill garnet from arizona USA

“Anthill garnet”

Red pyrope garnet Found in arizona, pyrope is a mineral of the garnet family, found from several localities around the world, but hey why the ones from arizona are called Anthill garnets?, they are called anthill garnets because of their Unexpected/Unusual origin, their origin is unusual becuase these Red Gems are mined by Tiny little Ants, yes Ants,

the gems are Found on and around Margins of anthills, the ants while excavating their underground passages kind of dig the Gems haul them up to the surcface and discard them to make some room to live down their, the rain washes the garnets and moves them down the hill and they can be easily collected by people in large numbers, the brilliant luster and dark red colour makes it Easier to find them in the soil surrounding,

some Ant discarded Garnets collected by a collector,

a few areas in arizona are well known for anthill garnets, the rich red Chromium pyrope garnets with a dark colour and exceptional luster a mohs scale hardness of 7.25, the native americans discovered them a long time ago, today native americans and rockhounds collect the gems and sell them to dealers which later cabochon or facet the stones and then they are mounted into jewelry, their unusual origin also plays a role in desire for the gem dealers and those who wear the Jewelry in which these gems are mounted in, the Anthill garnets found are usually tiny and cab/facet mostly 1ct or under gems, because the ants are smart enough to ignore and excavate around large stones rather then bringing them up the surface, and it is fair cause the larger stones would always appear almost black becuase of the very high colour but enough light goes through the tiny ones to reveal the deep desirable red colour.


Djouga Diggings Bendoukou, Region De Kayes, Mali


inosilicate of calcium and alluminium prehnite crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system, often forms stalactitic or botroiydal aggregates, vitreous pearly luster Mohs scale hardness of 6-6.5 Specific gravity 2.80-2.90, colour varies from light green,yellow,Colourless,Pink,Blue,White

This article will let you know about most of the famous localities which produced Hundreds and thousands of fine specimens, prehnite also is used as a gemstone Its mostly Translucent Rarely Transparent most production of Cab/Rarely facet grade production has come from Wave Hill northern territory Australia.

Prospect Park Quarry, New Jersey, USA
specimen: The arkenstone

The famous locality of New jersey USA, always has been and is a desire for a collector to add any specimens from the famous finds into their collection, above the piece shown is ofcourse of The botroiydal formation and The rare yellow colour which is unusual and very rare from this locality, Stalactitic prehnite specimens or Also called Finger prehnite specimens also have been part of the production from the locality, here under is a nice example of the stalactitic form from the locality

Prospect Park Quarry, New Jersey, USA
specimen: The Arkenstone

and who can forget the famous prehnites from Mali Africa! truly amazing quality of prehnite, and the combination of epidote makes it more aesthetic its a collectors choice Aswell, Although finger form has not yet not been produced, here under is a fine sample from the locality,

Botroiydal prehnite with epidote cluster specimen
Djouga Diggings, Bendoukou, Region De Kayes, Mali

another famous and amazing find was in South africa The Famous N’Chwaning ll mine Kalahari manganese field, how many fine mineral species have been produced from this Rich locality, the prehnite from here occurs as elongated prismaric Orthorhombic crystals arranged in sprays or botroiydal aggregates, in Yellow-Orange colour the deep orange colour is the novelty from this locality. here under is a fine example

dark orange Prehnite spray specimen
N’Chwaning II Mine Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa

famous for Zeolites minerals, The country of cultures and rituals (India) has also produced fine prehnite specimens, in combination with zeolite minerals, here under is a nice specimen of prehnite pseudomorph after laumontite with aphophyllite

Prehnite pseudomorphs after Laumontite with Apophyllite from Mumbai (Bombay) District Maharashtra India.

coming to the end of the article i would let you know of a locality of prehnite, from where (Me) the co-admin of Geogemsmineralclub.com started my career as a mineral dealer Ofcourse with a passion to serve and be known/Remembered for my services in this Field, and thankfully in a small time i have pretty much established myself and super active in the province baluchistan of pakistan For minerals Gems Productions or New finds, i have been Lucky enough to acquire Some Fine lots of Prehnite specimens by visiting small artisinal mines Runned by Families for a better living Yes it has helped them alot Financially, Baluchistan,pakistan yes has also been a part of production of Fine prehnite specimens Both in Stalactitic/Finger and botroiydal forms with an interesting Aesthetic Combination with quartz Crystals too sometimes also with Cubic calcites
i have been active from quite a time and have dealt in Several specimens also owning Many at the time now, i will soon publish a detailed article about prehnites from baluchistan and on my finds also will share Photos/videos of the area i often visit, however there are no any major known mines/Claims of prehnites All production comes from Small artisinal mines runned by families for a better living most of them have no idea/knowledge of minerals, prehnite comes from District Lasbela, District khuzdar and district zhob of baluchistan province no other locality in pakistan at the time is producing prehnite, Ending the article with some of my acquirements by personally visiting the areas mentioned below.

Light green prehnite with transparent Sharp Quartz crystals in combination, this is one of many specimens i own and have sold,
Kanoji village, district Khuzdar baluchistan pakistan
beautifully formed Green botroiydal prehnite specimen, from Mahirow village District lasbela, baluchistan pakistan
ligh green prehnite stalactite with quartz cluster specimen,
from mahirow village district lasbela, baluchistan pakistan

Top 10 Rarest Gems in Whole World

The Mother Earth has numerous gemstones and minerals.  . Some of them are expensive and some of them are non-expensive. Some are always rare. Crystals and gemstones take million years to form in which we see them. The more is the complex process of gemstone formation, the most it is valuable and rare.

Here, we are mentioning here 10 top rarest gemstones whose are valuable. These 10 rarest minerals famous in whole world.

This is human nature they like and want to use rare and more expensive things like jewelry, cars etc.  People are attracted to the finer things in life . The rare an item is the more exclusivity it holds.

The following 10 are the rarest gemstones of the world.  In 2005, The Guinness Book of World Records the world’s rarest gemstone mineral

  1. Alexandrite. …
  2. Benitoite. …
  3. Grandidierite. …
  4. Tanzanite. …
  5. Poudretteite. …
  6. Musgravit
  7. Red Diamonds. …
  8. Jeremejevite
  9. Red Beryl
  10. Painite

Alexandrite: –

The Alexandrite found in the Ural Mountains, Russian in the 1830’s. The New Deposits have been found in East Africa, Sri Lanka and Brazil. Although the name was given by the honor of the Russian Tasar Alexander-II. Alexandrite gleaned its moniker, emerald by day, ruby by night, from the beautiful shade of blue green or magenta it shines in different light sources. It has very awesome colour change attributes. Under light, it looks like an emerald if one sees in darkness, it will look like a ruby.

What differentiate Alexanderite from Chrysoberyl is the properties. The presence of iron, chromium, titanium impurities in Alexandrite.

Benitoite :-

The Benitoite was found in near the San Benito River in California . Benitoite is a blue to purple gemstone discovered in 1907. The Benitoite of best part is when you put in under UV light it resembles glowing blue chalk . it has also been unearthed in limited quantities in Japan and Arkansas but  these specimens are not “ gemstone quality “) and is also the states official gem. The Benitoite stones is found at  a carat or less and cap out at two carats. The origin of its color and its fluorescent properties still aren’t well understood.

Grandidierite :-

The Grandidierite is one of the rarest gems ever known. It is mostly found in Madagascar. The first neat and facet grade specimen was discovered in Siri Lanka. Its price can be upto $20000 per carat. The formula of  Grandidierite  is Mg,Fe2+)Al3(BO3)(SiO4)O2. 

Tanzanite :-

The Tanzanite is traced in  foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. The blue purple stone is extremely rare and could potentially mined out within 20-30 year. Its rare then diamond. Like Alexandrite, Tanzanite, it exhibits shift in colours under particular circumstances and conditions such as crystal orientation and light condition.

Poudretteite :-

The Poudretteite was discovered in the Poudrette quarry of Moon Saint Hilaire Quebec Canada in the 1960s . The honor of “Most Rare and Expensive Gem” goes to the Pink Star Diamond. This Gem Color is naturally pink and has a Mohs hardness of 5. It was until 2000 the first gem quality Poudretteite was found in Mogok Burma at an amazing 9.41 carats.

Red Diamonds:-

The red diamond is one of the most expensive gemstone. It is listed on number one  having highly price tag $1 million per carat . There are only 30 Red Diamonds in the whole world. Mostly are under 0.5 carat. With 5.11 carat, there is only one largest Red Diamond on this Earth.   The largest traditional diamonds such as those cut from the 3,106.75 carat Cullinan Diamond her weight is well over 500 carats. (The Gemological Institute of America )

Jeremejevite :-

This is also rarest gems in whole world. At the end of 19th century, it was first discovered in Siberia  . Jeremejevite was first traced in Siberia in 1883 around Adun Chilon Mountains.   Its hardness is as similar to quartz that is 6.5 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale, and therefore is ideal for jewelry making.

Musgravit :-

The Musgravit Gems (Be(Mg, Fe, Zn)2Al6O12) was discovered in 1967 in Musgrave Ranges Australia . This is from the family of same as Taafeite.  It is composed of aluminum oxide with variable proportions of magnesium , like iron and zinc.  There has been only 8 common Musgravite stones in the world.  Later, it has been observed and traced with minimum quantity. The popular places are Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Greenland, Antarctica and Tanzania. It has not been seen in large quantity. It has been very pricey gemstone ever such as have reached upto $35000 per carat.

Courtesy of the Gemological Institute of America

Red Beryl :-

Red Beryl mineral is a composed of beryllium , aluminum , and silicate  (Be3Al2Si6O18) . Red Beryl mine is in the Wah Wah Mountains of Utah . Only this mine produces the gem quality crystals. Others found in Utah, New Mexico and Mexico are too small and deemed unworthy of faceting. The prospective on its awesome rarity , the utha geological survey estimates there is one gem-quality red beryl crystal for every 150,000 gem-quality . The  prices on red beryl have been known to reach as much as 10 grand per carat for cut stones.

Painite :-  

This is one of the rarest mineral in the world. The mineral is formed by aluminium, boron, calcium, oxygen and zirconium. There were only 2 specimens marking them the world rarest gemstone. One orange-brown stone was found in 1950s in Maymmar by mineralogist Arthur C.D.Paine after decades. It was announced The Guinness Book of World Records In 2005 that Painite is the world rarest gemstone.