World Largest emerald ‘ Teodora” is Fake. Owner Regan Reaney Arrested

The 57,500-carat weighs 11.5 kg (25.35 lb) emerald ( the world largest, the size of a watermelon that would could fetch as much as $1.15 million But It appeared to be FAKE.

Regan Reaney Arrested: Owner Of World’s Largest Emerald Held, Gem Unsold At Auction

Regan Reaney, owner of the the world’s largest emerald looks over the gem at the Western Star Auction House in Kelowna, British Columbia January 26, 2012. The 57,500 carat emerald, named “Teodora”, which weighs 11.5 kg (25.35 lb) was mined in Brazil and cut in India. REUTERS/Andy Clark

Jeff Neckha, of Premier Gems in Calgary, appraised Reaney’s emerald. He told that the value of the emerald lies in its size. Though this is opaque having commercial quality but it is its weight 11.5 killograms. However he further said that the crystal has been dyed after appraising the stone. He pointed out that this seems to be green beryl which has been treated by enhancing its colour. Emeralds are included in beryl family which is rarest form of Beryl. White beryl are commonly found and have less value normally.

 

 

“This is 100% real,” Reaney said in his statement. “There are other gemologists who have looked at this. It is enhanced and it’s dyed, we know that, but it is an emerald, 100%.”

The Direct of west cost GIA in Carlsbad, Mr. Shane McClure said that white beryl could be dyed. Shane McClure who did not see the stone said that if this is white beryl, GIA will use the term like ” Beryl with Zones of Emeralds”. but the existence of dye gave further doubts.

“We probably would not call it emerald no matter what,” he says. “They seem to think there is indication of natural green coloration but we wouldn’t call it emerald in any case.”

Kelowna RCMP confirmed that they have executed outstanding warrants for arrest of Reaneyt on the basis of fraudulent act out of Hamilton, Ont.  Police in Kelowna arrested him.

Research Paper on the Enantiornithine (Baby Bird caught 99 Milliion years ago in Burmese amber)

A baby bird from Dianosour time was caught in amber dated approximately back to 99 million years ago. The amber is 99 million years old according to scientists writing in the journal Gondwana Research.

Here are pictures of bird from different angles.

Sizes and Measurements:-

Size:  86 mm x 30 mm x 57 mm,

weighs: 78.16 g,

The bird belongs to the group of birds called Enantiornithes which extincted along with other spices of the time i.e. dinosaurs at the end of Cretaceous Period about 65 million years ago. The discovery is very interesting as it is providing wonderful information about the ancient birds in understanding that how they were different than modern birds. This discovery implements the most complete fossil which has been discovered till now in Burmese amber. It is minded in the Hukawng Valley in Northern Myanmar.

The new specimen, HPG-15-1, comes from the Angbamo site, Tanai Township (Myitkyina District, Kachin Province) of northern Myanmar. There has been publication of complete research paper on this fossil

Research Paper on This Amber 

The original specimen is housed and displayed in the Hupoge Amber Museum (=HPG), Tengchong City Amber Association, China; the 3D reconstruction is available to researchers through the Dexu Institute of Palaeontology (=DIP), China.
The two pieces of amber forming HPG-15-1 were examined with a Leica MZ 12.5 dissecting microscope with a drawing tube attachment. Photographs were taken using a Canon digital camera (5D Mark III, MP-E 65MM F/2.8 1-5X) fitted to a macro rail (Cognisys), and were processed using Helicon Focus 5.1 and Adobe Photoshop CS5 software to increase depth of field in the images. These images were supplemented with photos taken under long wavelength UV light, mapping resin flows.

HPG-15-1 was scanned with a MicroXCT 400 (Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, USA) at the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. A single scan of the entire piece was not possible due to its large size. The different parts of the bird were scanned separately. The head, neck, wing, and hind limbs, were scanned with a beam strength of 60 KV, and an absorption contrast and a spatial resolution of 18.3298 μm, 18.3298 μm, 3.7795 μm, and 25.5308 μm, respectively.

 

 Results

The following bird parts are discussed in research paper. Unfortunately, the skull was split when the amber was cut (Figs. 1C; 2A-D). The ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT rostrum is preserved in one section and the neck and most of the braincase in the other.

  1. Skull
  2.  Neck
  3. Partial wing
  4. Partial hind limbs
  5. Integumentary structures
  6. Head and neck
  7. Partial wing
  8. Partial hind limbs
  9. Partial tail
  10. Taxonomic Assessment
  11. Ontogenetic assessment

Click here to view complete report on this amber specimen XING + 2017 Enantiornithine hatchling in Burmese amber_ ACCEPTED VERSION

Source: http://terratreasures.com

 

 

The World Most Expensive Gemstones SOLD EVER

Pink Star diamond sells for $71.2 million, take a look at the world’s most expensive gemstones

59.60 Carat pink star diamond has broken the world record. It was sold by Sotheby’s in Hong Kong in $71.2 million.

The Pink Star Diamond took 2 years to cut after the best gem cutters in the world studied it to reveal the best possible gemstone. It was auctioned last year for $83 Million however the buyer of the gemstone was not able to complete the payment.

 

Blue Belle Sapphire of Asia – 11.52 million Pound

Sunrise Ruby – 19.6 million Pound

The Sunrise Ruby” was named after a poem by Rumi, a 13th century Persian poet, who gave the most powerful description to the beautiful stone of ruby:
“… a ruby held up to the sunrise.
Is it still a stone, or a world made of redness? It has no resistance to sunlight. The ruby and the sunrise are one…”

White Diamond: Oval Cut D Flawless Type IIa

Colombian Emerald – 43 million Pound

Earlier, the most expensive gemstones were Diamonds, Sapphrie and Rubies. Until recently the magic $1 million per carat mark was only achieved by colored Diamonds. With the sale of the Sunrise Ruby the beautiful red gemstone has joined the exclusive club.

The Most Expensive Gemstones sold

Blue Diamonds

  • Blue Moon Diamond – 12.03cts – $4,028,940.81 per ct
  • Oppenheimer Blue Diamond – 14.62cts – $3,932,968.54
  • Mellon’s fancy vivid blue – 9.75cts – $3,343,589.74 per ct
  • DeBeers Millennium Jewel 4 – 10.10cts – $3,148,514 per ct
  • Winston Blue – 13.22cts – $1,799,952.50 per ct
  • Ocean Dream – 5.5cts – $1,599,752.18 per ct

Red Diamonds

  • Moussaieff – 2.09cts – $2,438,216.27 per ct

Orange Diamonds

  • The Orange – 14.82cts – $2,398,151.89 per ct

Pink Diamonds

  • Unique Pink – 15.38cts -$2,054,616.85
  • Graff Pink – 24.68cts – $1,863,857.37 per ct
  • Pink Star – 59.6cts – $1,194,603.87 per ct

Ruby

  • Sunrse Ruby – 25.59cts – $1,188,745.60 per ct
  • Graff Ruby – 8.62cts – $994,199.54 per ct
  • Burmese Ruby – 6.04cts – $546,357.62 per ct
  • Burmese Ruby – 32.08cts – $208,852.87 per ct

Sapphire

  • Jewel of Kashmir – 27.68cts – $243,702.60 pre ct
  • Unamed – 35.09cts – $210,844.17 per ct
  • Blue Belle of Asia – 392.52cts – $44,063.48 per ct

Padparchasa Sapphire

  • Unnamed – 14.65cts – $52,965.94 per ct

Spinel

  • Hope Spinel – 50.13cts – $29,217.26 per ct

Diamonds, and other big three gems, Ruby, Sapphire and Emeralds are breaking the auction records. There are other also which are poplar among buyers. They are Pearls, spinel, jadeite, alexandrite, and other gems are also quite popular among buyers.

A Giant Jade Stone Weighing 175 tonnes uncovered in Myanmar

According to BBC report and other authentic media, a giant jade stone has been unearthed in Myanmar. The stone is 4.3m (14ft) high and 5.8m (19ft) long, and is reportedly worth an estimated $170m (£140m).

It was found in a mine in the jade-producing Kachin state, in the north of the country.

Local politician U Tint Soe said the piece of jade was as big as two small houses.

“I assume that it is a present for the fate for our citizens, the government and our party as it was discovered in the time of our government. It’s a very good sign for us,” he said.

Myanmar, also known as Burma, is the source of nearly all of the world’s finest jadeite, a near-translucent green stone. Myanmar half of the GDP is depending upon Jade. China is its biggest market as Chinese takes jade as ” stone of heaven”.

Helium – The crisis that was solved before it took hold

Worldwide, our usage of Helium grows year on year. From MRI scanners in medical facilities, nuclear reactors and even party balloons.

Helium is not a resource we can simply create more of – The gas is formed during the natural radioactive decay of Uranium. It has also not been a focus of exploration for many years, despite looming shortages worldwide.

This is due, in part, to the selling of huge Helium reserves by the United States – Estimated to be about 40 percent of the total market supply. The United States began stockpiling the rare gas in the early 1960’s, as a buffer against future shortfalls. However, in 1996 an act passed (“The Helium Privatization Act”) prevented the Government from increasing the stockpile. In response, the United States started selling off this huge stockpile at below market prices, discouraging exploration and development of new deposits. A new bill has since been passed to maintain the reserves going forward.

Enter Helium one and the East African Rift Valley – One of the marvels of geology

To date, Helium has been discovered accidentally, usually while drilling for oil. The Norwegian company, Helium One, has taken a new approach – Their research shows that the heat created in active volcanic zones is enough to release Helium from rocks that carry this precious gas into trap systems, if present.

Of course, the laws of geology still apply, and things get complicated – The gas has to be trapped in such a way as to form an economically viable deposit, and the source area, if related to intense heat produced by volcanism, needs to be far enough away from the heat source so as not to be contaminated by other volcanic gasses. This is defined by the researchers as the “goldilocks zone” – a term often used in astrophysics to define the planetary orbit around a star that has just the right conditions for life to form. The similarity in goals, although with distinctly different outcomes, is easy to see.

In line with their models, the researchers believe that the Helium located in Tanzania is related to high intensity heating and fracturing of both the Mozambique belt (Proterozoic) and the Tanzanian Craton (Archean), by East African Rift System.

They have further found strong movement of Helium from deep to shallow crustal levels along fault structures (Of the East African Rift System), increasing the chance of good Helium trap systems to be developed.

The East African Rift System can be divided into two branches – The Western Rift, also called the Albertine Rift, extends from the Northern end of Lake Albert to the Southern end of Lake Tanganyika, the deepest lake in the world – a startling 1470 metres!

A volcanic system in the East African Rift Valley, as seen in Ethiopia.

The Eastern Rift, also called the Gregory Rift, lies within the Mozambique Belt. It has been shown that the Eastern Rift is caused by the ongoing separation of the Somali and Nubian plates, driven by a rising thermal plume. Much of the energy required to release Helium from source rocks is related to this system.

All these years of research led to one, amazing achievement – Helium One has started to define a resource of about 54 billion cubic feet, in one small portion of the Rift Valley! Exploration continues to this day, with high hopes of expanding the resource to one that will support us for many generations to come.

Most of us don’t realize how close we were to the cessation of vital equipment requiring Helium, across many industries that impact our daily lives.

Information for this article was sourced from –

Sci-news.com

Livescience.com

Forbes.com

Allafrica.com

African and Arabian Tectonic Plates

Wikipedia

Glimpse of Tucson Gems and Mineral Show 2017

Tucson Gemstone, mineral and Fossil Show is the biggest show in the world. Again this year in 2017, dealers, exhibitors, visitors and travelers have come all around the world for various purposes. There are approximately held 30 different wholesale, public gemstones, jewelry, minerals and fossils shows operated privately. Approximately 30000 exhibitors exhibit their products in Tucson. Tucson Gem show guide is here http://www.tucsonshowguide.com/ . One can see and get guidelines about possible events from there. Here is a short video on Tucson gems and mineral show.

By Krieger

Apart from exhibiting gemstones in shows, people also arrange their settings and display of gemstones and mineral specimens in hotel rooms individually. Here are some photos taken by visitors in Tucson Gem Show 2017.

 

 

Photos taken by : James Sichak , Travis Turner

Reason for Dinosaurs Extinction they could not Hatch quickly

This has been mysterious that why dinosaurs extinct on Earth after the Asteroid stroke the earth bringing about severe destruction. Paleontologists have observed through a discovery that young dinosaur took so much time to hatch.

Richard Attenborough watches as a dinosaur hatches in Jurassic Park

They could not grow quickly in adulthood that 65 million years ago, their population was fail to recover immediately from the impact of destruction.

Whereas other animals and birds quickly restored their population by quick hatching process in weeks. According to the The Telegraph , this has been discovered by Florida State University and Calgary University. Based on marks on the teeth of embryos and babies, they analyzed to calculate the time in which dinosaurs took time to hatch.

Gregory Erickson is a professor of biological science at Florida State University CREDIT: FSU PHOTOGRAPHY SERVICES

It can be judged from new layers of teeth which grew each day like layers of trees. The layers are visible in microscopic lines of the dentine. It took Dinosaur to hatch two to three months.

“Some of the greatest riddles about dinosaurs pertain to their embryology, virtually nothing is known,” Gregory Erickson, professor of biological science at Florida said.

“We suspect our findings have implications for understanding why dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous period, whereas amphibians, birds, mammals and other reptiles made it through and prospered.”

It has been under observation and assumption that birds belong to dinosaur category. Duration of incubation of dinosaur is similar to birds. The duration hatching was 11 to 85 days which did not support in the growth of dinosaur. Finally it can be said that mystery of dinosaurs extinction after the Cretaceous meteor strike has been solved fully. The animals / mammals developed and grew with passage of time whereas dinosaur could not do this.

The mystery of why the dinosaurs  became extinct after the Cretaceous meteor strike, while birds and mammals flourished, may finally have been solved.

Paleontologists have discovered that dinosaur young took so long to hatch and grow into adulthood that populations failed to recover quickly enough after the devastating impact 65 million years ago.

 

A Meteorite Older Than Earth Discovered by Australian Geologists in outback Australia

Recently, the Desert Fireball Network of Curtin University traced the meteorites in Australian lake, Eyre. The total weight of meteorite is 1.7 Killo Gram. Its age is estimated around 4.5 billion years.

Photo: Curtin University/Desert Fireball Network

According to http://www.abc.net.au/ , recent discovery of meteorite plunged to Earth in the November. The team of Curtin University has been after this. However it was tracked later in remote spot in Australian Outback beside Lake Eyre.

Phil Bland, a geologist professor who is also a leader of team, extracted it from the soil by hand. He said,

“It was an amazing effort,” Bland said in a press release from the university. “We got there by the skin of our teeth.”

Professor Bland said. “It is older than the Earth itself. It’s the oldest rock you’ll ever hold in your hand.”

“It came to us from beyond the orbit of Mars, so in between Mars and Jupiter.”

Across WA and South Australia, a new observation of network of 32 remote cameras appears to be helping in finding meteorite.  The geologist and researchers spent on 3 days operations to get it. There were 2 researchers, an aerial spotter, quad bike, a drone and local aboriginal guides. It was very difficult to make observation from air due to stormy weather and rain.

The cameras (Desert Fireball Network) assisted in research area upto 500 meter. As per the researchers and geologists, the meteorite is a form of chondroitin. Or in other words, it is a stony meteorite. Early estimation is that it is 4.5 billion years old.

It is also observation by a few scientists that first Asteroid which stroke the Earth and became cause of dinosaurs extinction — It was broken up between Mars and Jupiter.

Reuters / NASA

The Cameras

The Desert Fireball Network records the picture of meteors during their falling. It is attached to a software which help in tracking direction, calculation of sped, landing zone and actual orbit of meteoric. It can tell the original body of the meteors from where it is coming. After finding the object, it can be further analyzed regarding its characteristics, chemical composition, or composition of actual body from where it has fallen apart. The scientists can observe the solar system through getting information from the observations and analysis of meteorite.

What is Meteorite?

Meteorite is a rocky fragment which has come from outer space from earth as a meteor. The Meteorite is consisted of 90% rock material and rest is based on iron and nickel. When any object or rock enters the earth atmosphere, it has to face various resistances on the way. Such as friction, environmental effects, chemical interaction, pressure. It can react or be affected by chemical interactions within atmosphere gases which make them heated or radiated. All these changes affect the object and make it in form of meteor. It falls on earth like a fireball. Because of this, it is also called shooting / falling star.

Only those meteorites survive which comes in a very large sizes. Most of the part becomes damaged or finished during atmospheric entry and on the way changes.